From obscurity to centre stage, how ED received wings

New Delhi: A bunch of broadcast journalists have been having fun with their night tea at Mandi House on a quiet December 2008 night. A colleague from print media briefly joined them. While leaving, he stated, “See you guys. I have to rush to the ED office”. One of the TV journalists within the group requested, “What’s ED?”

That’s how insignificant this now ubiquitous federal company was until about 12-13 years in the past that even journalists not masking finance-related beats have been oblivious to its existence and powers.

However, issues modified at a quick tempo because the central company started taking over Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) circumstances h aving political hyperlinks – such because the Commonwealth Games scandal, 2G spectrum allocation, coal blocks allocation irregularities, probe in opposition to Baba Ramdev, amongst others.

Prior to that, Enforcement Directorate (ED) restricted itself largely to circumstances in opposition to corporates. Politically delicate circumstances have been thought-about a website of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).

The company began asserting its powers when P Chidambaram, who himself alongside along with his son Karti is at the moment being investigated for cash laundering in Aircel-Maxis and INX Media circumstances, was the union finance minister.

But when Prime Minister Narendra Modi got here to the ability in 2014 with a thumping majority, it received wings.

The shift beneath NDA

Union minister of state for finance Pankaj Chaudhary final week shared knowledge on ED probes, saying the directorate carried out 3010 raids and connected proceeds of crime value R99,356 crore beneath the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) throughout 5$3 final eight years, since National Democratic Alliance (NDA) authorities took energy.

In distinction, there have been solely 112 raids and attachment of simply R5,346 crore proceeds of crime between 2004-05 and 2013-14, the tenure of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA).

Similarly, ED took up 22,320 investigations pertaining to violations of international change legislation (Foreign Exchange Management Act) within the final eight years, in comparison with solely 8,586 such probes between 2004-05 and 2013-14.

“Increase in the number of searches shows government’s commitment to preventing money laundering and improved systems for gathering financial intelligence through use of technology, better interagency cooperation and exchange of information both domestically and internationally, concerted efforts to complete pending investigations in old cases and investigations in complex money laundering cases that have multiple accused requiring multiple searches are some of the reasons for the increase in the number of searches,” Chaudhary stated.

Over the final eight years, ED has aggressively gone after businessmen, politicians and firms concerned in cash laundering by violating the foundations laid down by the federal government and regulatory authorities. A particular focus has been on white-collar criminals and laundering actions which have an effect on the nationwide safety of the nation.

The company believes that the ultra-rich create company buildings throughout varied international jurisdictions to switch unaccounted funds and delay investigations in case the legislation catches up with them, an argument recently introduced by it within the courts as properly in a number of circumstances.

For instance, whereas submitting a cost sheet in opposition to Ratul Puri, nephew of former Madhya Pradesh chief minister Kamal Nath, in November 2019, ED stated “the high net-worth individuals or HNIs create or use entities maintained with the Hawala operators or others who are close associates. Then, to instruct the transfer of proceeds of crime, alternate email IDs, which cannot be tracked back to them, are created and efforts are undertaken to ensure that no evidence leads to them so that in case law catches up, they can deny ownership of the same as no footprints are available to trace these entities and email IDs to them.”

A free hand

Given a free hand by the federal government, ED has recently taken the proactive method whereas coping with the white-collar criminals within the courts as properly. It has on the payrolls a number of particular public prosecutors to counter the accused in search of bail, making an attempt to de-freeze properties or planning international visits on well being grounds.


Subsequently, Solicitor General Tushar Mehta seems for the company every so often – be it defending the PMLA within the Supreme Court, opposing bail to former finance minister P Chidambaram or in search of custody of Delhi’s former well being minister Satyendar Jain amongst different a number of circumstances.

The high legislation officer final 12 months even appeared within the apex courtroom to defend the federal government’s determination to increase the tenure of ED chief Sanjay Kumar Mishra past his retirement, saying “he has done a good job”.

The PMLA enhance

When the nation’s high authorized minds challenged the provisions of PMLA terming the legislation as draconian and actions of ED as “opaque, arbitrary and violative” of the constitutional rights of an accused, the Supreme Court final week gave the company a shot within the arm by upholding the provisions.

In a complete judgment, a bench headed by justice AM Khanwilkar, with justices Dinesh Maheshwari and CT Ravi Kumar as members, dominated that the ability given to ED for making arrests, conducting search and seizures and attaching proceeds of crime are constitutionally legitimate and don’t endure from the vice of arbitrariness.

Formed in 1956 to deal with change management legal guidelines violations beneath Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) – changed by FEMA (Foreign Exchange Management Act) in 2000 – the central company restricted itself largely to businessmen and firms however had no powers to arrest individuals or take them in custody beneath FEMA.

In 2002, the Atal Bihari Vajpayee authorities launched PMLA to cope with cash laundering. It got here into existence in 2005 solely when the Manmohan Singh authorities issued a notification.

Initial years after PMLA got here into existence have been sluggish as a consequence of varied causes, particularly with the company having an enormous workers crunch and insufficient coaching to cope with high-profile cash laundering circumstances.

Karnal Singh, former ED director stated, “There had been a huge manpower shortage in the ED for a long time. For example, when I joined as ED director (2016), the organisation had only 700-odd personnel out of sanctioned strength of 2,048. A slew of other measures was also taken up – including improving the quality of investigation by establishing the training centre of the ED, establishing an in-house cyber lab and focusing on filing prosecution complaints (the equivalent of charge sheets). All this resulted in improving the capabilities of the ED, and as a result, it started taking up more and more cases,” Singh stated.

Despite all these enhancements, what makes ED distinctive is its powers to arrest anybody, admissibility of a press release recorded beneath part 50 of the PMLA in opposition to that particular person and most significantly, attaching the properties of the launderers. The legislation places the burden of proof on the accused.

Officers in a number of companies acknowledge these provisions put ED above the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) when it comes to affect and inducing worry within the minds of white-collar criminals.

Some of the high-profile circumstances dealt with or at the moment beneath investigation by the ED embody the AgustaWestland VVIP chopper rip-off, wherein it has filed about half a dozen cost sheets and received British intermediary Christian Michel extradited from the UAE; aggressively tracing the properties of financial institution mortgage defaulters – Vijay Mallya, Nirav Modi and Mehul Choksi – in nations such because the UK, France, the US and getting successes in extraditions of Mallya and Modi in London. While Nirav Modi has challenged the choice, Mallya continues to be within the UK on account of asylum software.

Is it a political device?

Various political events have repeatedly accused the ED of concentrating on solely the opposition politicians in non-Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) dominated states.

For instance, accusations have been levelled for arresting and attaching the properties of Shiv Sena MLAs and members of parliament together with Sanjay Raut, Anil Deshmukh, Anil Parab and many others in Maharashtra, DK Shivakumar in Karnataka, raids on Rajasthan chief minister Ashok Gehlot’s brother Agrasain Gehlot, arrest of Delhi’s former well being minister Satyendar Jain, and constant motion on Trinamool Congress leaders in West Bengal in varied scams reminiscent of coal mining, cattle smuggling and lecturers’ recruitment irregularities.

Recent questioning of Congress interim president Sonia Gandhi and her son Rahul Gandhi in Delhi within the National Herald cash laundering case led to large protests throughout the nation, with ED dealing with allegations of being a “political tool”.

Karnal Singh says cash laundering not solely impacts the victims immediately affected by the crime however others who don’t have anything to do with it as properly. “For example, if two persons are involved in some business, and one has invested his legitimate money while the other has put illegitimate money, the purposes of both are different. For the person having legitimate money, the purpose is to earn some profit while the person with the ill-gotten, the purpose is to conceal the origin of the proceeds. In such a competition, the person with legitimate money will be a loser, and therefore money laundering has an adverse impact on the law-abiding citizens of the country.”

He added that cash laundering can be a risk to nationwide safety and that’s why cash laundering has been thought-about essential world over and it led to the formation of the FATF (Financial Action Task Force), which screens the implementation of the cash laundering act in numerous nations and enforces worldwide cooperation.

However, for all of the hype round cash laundering, the conviction beneath the legislation is dismal. Government knowledge shared by Chaudhary final week states solely 23 individuals have been convicted since 2005.

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